on Science Learning and Teaching, Volume 12, Issue 2, Article 7 (Dec., 2011)
The study adopted a pretest, post-test control group quasi experimental design using 3 x 2 factorial matrix (campbell and Stanley, 1971). The design is shown structurally as follows.
O1 X1 O2 E1
O3 X2 O4 E2
O5 X3 O6 C
O1, O3 and O5 represent pretest observations.
O2, O4 and O6 represent post-test observation
X1 is experimental treatment of STAD, (with inter-team competition)
X2 experimental treatment of STAD 2 (without inter-team competition)
X3 is the conventional lecture method (control)
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